Ataxin-3L [6His-tagged]


Catalogue Number
64-0034-050
Product Size
50 µg
Price £
£250
Accession Number
NP_001129467
Residues Expressed
1-355
Certificate of Analysis Size
50 µg
Species
human
Source
E.coli
Quantity
50 µg
Storage
-70°C
Concentration
0.5 mg/ml
Formulation
50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 150 mM sodium chloride, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 10% glycerol
Molecular Weight
~43 kDa
Stability
12 months at -70°C; aliquot as required
Protein Sequence
Accession number: NP_001129467. For full protein sequence information download the Certificate of Analysis pdf.
QA; Protein Identification
Confirmed by mass spectrometry.
QA Activity

Deubiquitylase Enzyme Assay: The activity of His-Ataxin-3L was validated by determining the increase in fluorescence measured as a result of the enzyme catalysed cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Ubiquitin-Rhodamine110-Glycine generating Ubiquitin and Rhodamine110-Glycine. Incubation of the substrate in the presence or absence of His-Ataxin-3L was compared confirming the deubiquitylating activity of His-Ataxin-3L.


Background

Deconjugating enzymes (DCEs) are proteases that process ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like gene products, reverse the modification of proteins by a single ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) and remodel polyubiquitin (or poly-UBL) chains on target proteins (Reyes-Turcu et al., 2009). The deubiquitylating - or deubiquitinating - enzymes (DUBs) represent the largest family of DCEs and regulate ubiquitin dependent signalling pathways. The activities of the DUBs include the generation of free ubiquitin from precursor molecules, the recycling of ubiquitin following substrate degradation to maintain cellular ubiquitin homeostasis and the removal of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins (UBL) modifications through chain editing to rescue proteins from proteasomal degradation or to influence cell signalling events (Komander et al., 2009). There are two main classes of DUB; cysteine proteases and metalloproteases. Ataxin-3L is a cysteine protease and a member of the Machado-Joseph Domain (MJD) enzyme family. Cloning of the human gene was first described by Gerhard et al. (2004). Machado–Joseph disease (MJD), the most common form of spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide, is a progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyQ expansion in ataxin-3, a conserved and ubiquitous protein known to bind polyubiquitin chains and to function as a deubiquitylating enzyme. Ataxin-3 has been linked to protein homeostasis maintenance, transcription, cytoskeleton regulation and myogenesis (Matos et al., 2011). Ataxin-3L shares 85% sequence identity with ataxin-3 although it has recently been shown that the Josephin domain of ataxin-3L demonstrates substantially higher deubiquitylating activity than the ataxin-3 Josephin domain (Weeks et al., 2011).


References

Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, et al. (2004) The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res 14, 2121-2127.

Komander D, Clague MJ, Urbe S (2009) Breaking the chains: structure and function of the deubiquitinases. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10, 550-563.

Matos CA, de Macedo-Ribeiro S, Carvalho AL (2011) Polyglutamine diseases: the special case of ataxin-3 and Machado-Joseph disease. Prog Neurobiol 95, 26-48.

Reyes-Turcu FE, Ventii KH, Wilkinson KD (2009) Regulation and cellular roles of ubiquitin-specific deubiquitinating enzymes. Ann Rev Biol 78, 363-397.

Weeks SD, Grasty KC, Hernandez-Cuebas L, Loll PJ (2011) Crystal structure of a Josephin-ubiquitin complex: evolutionary restraints on ataxin-3 deubiquitinating activity. J Biol Chem 286, 4555-4565.