NLEL [GST-tagged]

Catalogue Number
Product Size
25 µg
Price £
Accession Number
Residues Expressed
Certificate of Analysis Size
25 µg
25 µg
50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 150 mM sodium chloride, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 10% glycerol
Molecular Weight
12 months at -70°C; aliquot as required
Protein Sequence
Accession number: NP_309587.1. For full protein sequence information download the Certificate of Analysis pdf.
QA; Protein Identification
Confirmed by mass spectrometry.
QA Activity

E3 Ligase Assay: The ubiquitin conjugating activity of GST-NLEL was validated through its ability to catalyse the generation of polyubiquitin chains in the presence of the E1 activating enzyme His-UBE1, the E2 conjugating enzyme His-UBE2D3 (UbcH5c) (several E2s were tested, data generated with this E2 is provided by way of example) and ubiquitin. Incubation of GST-NLEL for 30 minutes at 30oC in the presence of ubiquitin, His-UBE1, His-UBE2D3 and ATP (Lane 1) was compared alongside two control reactions with either ATP (Lane 2) or GST-NLEL (Lane 3) excluded from the reaction. Ubiquitin conjugates were identified by Western blotting using an anti-ubiquitin conjugate antibody and these were observed only in the presence of both ATP and GST-NLEL.


The enzymes of the ubiquitylation pathway play a pivotal role in a number of cellular processes including the regulated and targeted proteasome-dependent degradation of substrate proteins. Three classes of enzymes are involved in the process of ubiquitylation; activating enzymes (E1s), conjugating enzymes (E2s) and protein ligases (E3s). Non-LEE-encoded ligase (NleL) is a member of the E3 protein ligase family and cloning of the gene from Escherichia coli was first described by Kulasekara et al. (2009). Many pathogenic bacteria can deliver virulence factors into host cells that function as E3 ligases and NleL is a bacterial ubiquitin E3 ligase involved in pedestal formation (Lin et al., 2012; Piscatelli et al., 2011). NleL has been shown to contain a cysteine residue near the C terminus of the protein that forms a transient thioester bond with Ubiquitin (Piscatelli et al., 2011). Similar to eukaryotic HECT E3s ligases, NleL functions with a subgroup of E2 enzymes that contain a conserved phenylalanine residue (Lin et al., 2010). NleL also possesses the conformational flexibility characteristic of HECT E3 ligases, however, the molecular surface of NleL bears no similarity to that of HECT E3 ligases (Daio et al., 2008; Lin et al., 2010).


Diao J, Zhang Y, Huibregtse JM, Zhou D, Chen J. (2008) Crystal structure of SopA, a Salmonella effector protein mimicking a eukaryotic ubiquitin ligase. Nat Struct Mol Biol 15, 65–70.

Kulasekara BR, Jacobs M, ZhouY, Wu Z, Sims E, et al. (2009) Analysis of the genome of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 2006 spinach-associated outbreak isolate indicates candidate genes that may enhance virulence. Infect Immun 77, 3713-3721.

Lin DY, Diao J, Zhou D, Chen J. (2010) Biochemical and structural studies of a HECT-like ubiquitin ligase from Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Biol Chem 286, 441–449.

Lin DY, Diao J, Chen J. (2012) Crystal structures of two bacterial HECT-like E3 ligases in complex with a human E2 reveal atomic details of pathogen-host interactions. PNAS 109, 1925-30.

Piscatelli H, Kotkar SA, McBee ME, Muthupalani S, Schauer DB, Mandrell RE, Leong JM, Zhou D. (2011) The EHEC type III effector NleL is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that modulates pedestal formation. PLoS One 6, e19331.