ZNRF1 [GST-tagged]

Catalogue Number
Product Size
25 µg
Price £
Accession Number
Residues Expressed
Certificate of Analysis Size
25 µg
25 µg
50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 150 mM sodium chloride, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 10% glycerol
Molecular Weight
12 months at -70°C; aliquot as required
Protein Sequence
Accession number: Q8ND25. For full protein sequence information download the Certificate of Analysis pdf.
QA; Protein Identification
Confirmed by mass spectrometry.
QA Activity

E3 Ligase Assay: The ubiquitin conjugating activity of GST-ZNRF1 was validated through its ability to catalyse the generation of polyubiquitin chains in the presence of the E1 activating enzyme His-UBE1, the E2 conjugating enzyme His-UBE2D3 (UbcH5c) (several E2s were tested, data generated with this E2 is provided by way of example) and ubiquitin. Incubation of GST-ZNRF1 for 30 minutes at 30oC in the presence of ubiquitin, His-UBE1, His-UBE2D3 and ATP (Lane 1) was compared alongside two control reactions with either ATP (Lane 2) or GST-ZNRF1 (Lane 3) excluded from the reaction. Ubiquitin conjugates were identified by Western blotting using an anti-ubiquitin conjugate antibody and these were observed only in the presence of both ATP and GST-ZNRF1.


The enzymes of the ubiquitylation pathway play a pivotal role in a number of cellular processes including the regulated and targeted proteasome-dependent degradation of substrate proteins. Three classes of enzymes are involved in the process of ubiquitylation; activating enzymes (E1s), conjugating enzymes (E2s) and protein ligases (E3s). Zinc and Ring Finger protein 1 (ZNRF1) is a member of the Really Interesting New Gene (RING) E3 protein ligase family and cloning of the human gene was first described by Araki et al. (2001). ZNRF1 has been shown to be expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous system of rats during development and in adulthood (Araki et al., 2001). Ube2D2 and Ube2D3 have been identified as supporting E2 conjugating enzymes in the in vitro ubiquitylation activity of ZNRF1 and mutation of the Zinc finger Ring finger domain of ZNRF1 showed that it was required for the E3 ligase activity of ZNRF1 (Araki and Milbrandt 2003). Over expression of ZNRF1 - which has been implicated in neuronal degeneration - has been shown to increase neurite outgrowth (Yoshida et al., 2009). ZNRF1 has also been shown to cause the degradation of the protein kinase AKT thus preventing the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β thus inactivating it in axons leading to Wallerian Degeneration (Wakatsuki et al., 2011).


Araki T, Nagarajan R, Milbrandt J. (2001) Identification of genes induced in peripheral nerve after injury: expression profiling and novel gene discovery. J Biol. Chem 276, 34131-34141.

Araki T, Milbrandt J. (2003) ZNRF proteins constitute a family of presynaptic E3 ubiquitin ligases J. Neurosci 23, 9385-9394.

Wakatsuki S, Saitoh F, Araki T. (2011) ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B-dependent CRMP2 phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol 12, 1415-23.

Yoshida K, Watanabe M, Hatakeyama S. (2009) ZNRF1 interacts with tubulin and regulates cell morphogenesis Biochem Biophys Res Commun 389, 506-11.